The two main cropping seasons of Ethiopia are referred to as Belg and Meher. Meher corresponds to the main rainy season from June-September and includes all the crops that are harvested from August, and sometimes as late as December. The peak of rainfall is usually recorded during July and August but rainy seasons may be very long and bimodal, especially in the drier parts of the country. Most of the cereal crops were in full growth during the reporting period. Meher rmaize was harvested during October.
埃塞俄比亚的两个主要农作物季节称为次季和主季。 主季对应6月至9月的雨季，涵盖了收获期位于8月到12月下旬的主要作物生长季。 雨季的降雨峰值通常出现在7月和8月峰，但有时雨季会持续很长且呈双峰状态，尤其是在该国较干旱的地区。 在报告监测期间，大多数作物长势较好，主季玉米将于10月收获。
At the national level, the CropWatch indicators had RAIN at 977 mm, 9% above average. The temperature (TEMP) and sunshine (RADPAR) were close to average. BIOMASS fell 13% compared to average, which is confirmed by the NDVI development graph showing below average crop condition at the national scale. However, spatial NDVI patterns indicate that NDVI was above average in 34.3% of arable land and below-average elsewhere. This spatial pattern is reflected by the maximum VCI in the different areas, with high values of VCIx at 0.99 and a 1% increase in CALF. Most other regions had VCIx values between 0.8 and 1.0. Generally, even though the crop condition from the national NDVI profile was below the five-year average, the agronomic and agro-climatic indicators show that conditions were favorable and correspond to fair Meher crops.
全国范围内，CropWatch农气指标显示降水为977毫米，比平均水平偏高9％。 温度和光合有效辐射接近平均水平。 潜在生物量与平均水平相比偏低13％，与NDVI作物生长过程线一致，该过程线显示全国范围内的作物长势均低于平均水平。 但是，空间NDVI距平空间聚类图显示34.3％的耕地NDVI高于平均水平，而其他地区则低于平均水平。 这与不同区域的最佳植被状况指数一致，其VCIx的高值达到0.99，该国的耕地种植比例相比平均增加了1％。 该国大多数区域的VCIx值在0.8到1.0之间。 尽管NDVI作物生长过程线显示NDVI低于5年平均值，但较好的农气条件显示作物生长条件较好，主季的作物长势良好。
Maize and teff are commonly cultivated in the Central-northern maize teff highlands. Compared to the 2018 JASO period, rainfall was high during the current season at 1028 mm, 5% above average. Temperature and radiation were somewhat below average with TEMP down 0.1°C and RADAR down -2%. Even though rainfall was above-average, the total biomass production potential underwent a 13% drop; CALF was up 1%. The region had above-average VCIx (0.98). The NDVI development graph shows below 5YA crop condition. Most parts of the AEZ practice single cropping and cropping intensity rose 5%. Crop condition was favorable and a good harvest is expected.
The southeastern mixed-maize zone contains central Oromia and northern Amhara and grows mainly maize and teff. The total amount of rainfall reached 462 mm, a significant increment above average (+35%). Temperature was below 15YA while RADAR was up 1%; BIOMSS fell -17%, which likely resulted in low livestock feed availability. CALF increased by 4% above the five-year average, and the maximum VCIx value was 1. Similarly, the Crop condition was above 5YA average according to the NDVI development graph. Overall the crop condition of this zone was favorable.
The production of crops is limited in the Semi-arid pastoral zone. Rainfall was low (145mm) but nevertheless significant higher than average by 37%, with BIOMSS up 4%, which has favored range-land production in this predominantly pastoral area. Sunshine and the cropped arable land fraction were below (RADPAR -1%, CALF -16%) but VCIx exceeded 1, indicating a favorable livestock situation.
The Western mixed maize zone recorded 1619 mm of rainfall (RAIN +21%). Other CropWatch agro-climatic indicators such as temperature and RADPAR were below average (TEMP -0.6°C, RADPAR -3%). Similarly, the Crop condition was below average according to the NDVI development graph, an observation confirmed by the significant drop of total biomass production by18% compared to the five-year average. CALF remained constant, with a high VCIx value recorded for the region as a whole (1.00). In this zone, the cropping intensity (108%) remained constant compared to the last five years. In general, the conditions was favorable for crop production.
西部玉米混种区降雨偏高21%达到1619毫米。温度和光和有效辐射相比平均偏低(温度 -0.6°C, 光合有效辐射 -3%)。NDVI作物生长过程线显示作物长势低于平均，潜在生物量偏低18%。耕地种植比例位于平均水平，最佳植被状况指数较高，多数区域达到1.0。该区域作物密度位于平均水平（108%），总体长势良好。
图 3.17 2019 年7月-10 月埃塞俄比亚作物长势
(f)NDVI距平空间聚类图（与5年平均相比） (g) NDVI距平聚类过程线
(h) 基于 NDVI 的作物生长过程线（左：中北部高原区，右：东南部玉米混种区）
表 3.22 埃塞俄比亚农业生态分区 2019 年7月-10月与过去 15 年（15YA）同期农业气象指标
|当前值(mm)||距平(%)||当前值(oc)||距平(oc)||当前值(MJ/m2)||距平(%)||当前值 (gDM/m2)||距平 (%)|
表 3.23 埃塞俄比亚农业生态分区 2019 年7月-10月与近 5 年/15 年（5YA/15YA）同期农情指标