The reporting period includes the harvest of the 2019 maize crop and the planting of the 2019-2020 winter wheat, which started in September. Overall, crop conditions were favorable, yet the agroclimatic indicators fluctuated. Rainfall was 35% lower than average; TEMP, RADPAR and BIOMSS were higher by 2.1°C, 9% and 10%, respectively. The nationwide NDVI profile shows that crop conditions were below average in October, but then improved to above average. The temperature was higher than average and close to the 15 year maximum. Rainfall was lower than average during the reporting period. Higher temperatures provided a favorable environment for winter wheat while the decrease of rainfall could limit crop growth.
The NDVI profiles show that most of the eastern and southern areas experienced an increase in December. The increase of biomass shows that the crop condition was favorable for winter wheat.
More spatial detail is provided below for three main agro‐ecological zones: the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (160), the Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains (161) and the Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau (162).
For the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills, compared to the 15YA, rainfall decreased by as much as 29%, while temperature and radiation were both up (TEMP +2.0℃ , RADPAR +9%) and BIOMSS increased by 9%. According to NDVI development, crop condition was better than average in December and January. The regional average VCI maximum was at 0.83. The NDVI spatial distribution shows that NDVI was fair throughout the reporting period. As the central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills occupies only a small fraction of cropland in Romania, this region's fair NDVI cannot represent much of Romania crop production.
For the Eastern and Southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains, rain decreased 40%, temperature increased 2.3℃, radiation increased 8% and biomass increased 10%. The NDVI development graph shows that crop condition was better than average after November. VCI max value of this region was 0.87 and according to the distribution map, VCI values were increasing in December in most of the central and middle region, especially in the southeast area of this sub-region (counties of Tulcea and Constanta), representing about 14.3% of the national cropland.
For the Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau, rainfall was lower than average by 34%, temperature and radiation were somewhat higher (TEMP +1.8℃, RADPAR +10%) and biomass increased 11%. Spatial NDVI profiles show that crop condition was higher than average in December and January and this could be due to the increase of temperature. Maximum VCI of this region was 0.80, a bit low and the spatial distribution was between 0.5 and 0.8. The spatial NDVI distribution shows that NDVI in most of this sub region has a small rising trend during October to December (green line).
Overall, crop condition was fair in Romania during this reporting period due to the good temperature condition.
(a).Phenology of major crops
(b) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (c) Maximum VCI
(d) Spatial NDVI patterns compared to 5YA (e) NDVI profiles
(f) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (left) and Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugarbeet plains (right))
(g) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau)
(h) Rainfall index (i) Temperature index
Table 3.65 Romania’s agroclimatic indicators by sub-national regions, current season’s values and departure from 15YA, October 2019-January 2020
|Current (mm)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current (°C)||Departure from 15YA (°C)||Current (MJ/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)|
|Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills||196||-29||3.4||2||408||9|
|Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains||142||-40||6.3||2.3||417||8|
|Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau||165||-34||4.8||1.8||406||10|
Table 3.66 Romania’s agronomic indicators by sub-national regions, current season’s values and departure from 5YA, October 2019-January 2020
|Region||BIOMSS||Cropped arable land fraction||Maximum VCI|
|Current (gDM/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current||Departure from 5YA (%)||Current|
|Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills||76||9||95||-1||0.83|
|Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains||98||10||80||7||0.87|
|Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau||86||11||91||0||0.8|