During this reporting period, maize and spring wheat were sown, while winter wheat was harvested in July. At the national level, rainfall was 52% below average, average temperature was 0.6℃ higher and radiation was slightly above average (+3%). The significant decrease in rainfall and the rise of temperature caused a large biomass decrease (-24%). The CALF of Romania remained unchanged (100%) and the maximum VCI was only 0.82. The rainfall time series shows that precipitation was far below average in May, early June and July, below 20 mm, impacting the growth of maize and wheat. In contrast to the lower rainfall, the temperature was above average for most of the reporting period and even reached the 15 years maximum in late July. The VHI map shows that drought conditions were serious in the eastern region. According to the NDVI development curve, crop conditions were below average from April to June. Only 6% (green line) of Romain cropland experienced a change from a negative to a positive departure from the average NDVI trend during the reporting period. The proportion of irrigated cropland in Romania is only 4%. Crop conditions are assessed as unfavorable, especially for the summer crops.
More details are provided below for three main agro‐ecological zones: the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (160), the Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains (161) and the Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau (162).
For the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills, compared to the 15YA, rainfall decreased by 53%, temperature was up by 0.8℃, radiation was above average (RADPAR +5%) and BIOMSS decreased by 23%. According to the NDVI development, crop conditions were below average during the reporting period. The regional average VCI maximum was 0.90. APSI was 1.03. This region occupies only a small part of cropland in Romania, thus the below-average vegetation conditions have little impact on Romania's crop production.
For the Eastern and Southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains, rainfall decreased by 53%, the temperature was 1.0ºC higher than average and radiation remained average. This resulted in a reduced estimate of biomass (-24%). The NDVI development graph shows that crop conditions dropped to below average during the reporting period. The VCIx value of this region was only 0.80. According to the distribution map, the yellow and blue NDVI profile line region in the southeast (counties of Tulcea and Constanta) dropped largely in June and July, meanwhile, the maximum VCI values in this area were below 0.5. APSI was 0.99. All indicators show that the crop condition in this region was unfavorable.
For the Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau, rainfall was lower than average by 51%. Temperature was also higher than average by 0.1℃, radiation was also higher (RADPAR +5%) and biomass decreased by 26%. Maximum VCI of this region was 0.85. It ranged considerably in this region (0.5 to 1.0). APSI was 1.04. The spatial NDVI pattern shows that NDVI was also decreasing in the central region (blue line), which indicates that crop conditions were unfavorable.
Figure 3.37 Romania's crop condition, April–July 2022
(a). Phenology of major crops
(b) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI
(c) Maximum VCI
(d) Spatial NDVI patterns compared to 5YA
(d) NDVI距平空间聚类图（与5年平均相比） (e) NDVI距平聚类过程线
(f) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (left) and Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains (right))
（f）基于 NDVI 的作物生长过程线(中部地区(左)、南部和东部平原地区(右))
(g) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau)
（g）基于 NDVI 的作物生长过程线(西部地区)
(h) Time series rainfall profile
(i) Time series temperature profile
Table 3.65 Romania's agroclimatic indicators by sub-national regions, current season's values and departure from 15YA, April–July 2022
Table 3.66 Romania's agronomic indicators by sub-national regions, current season's values and departure from 5YA, April – July 2022