High temporal and spatial variability of agro-climatic and agronomic indices was observed over the region. Globally, the region showed a strong negative anomaly in RAIN of about 19 %. Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil showed significant periods of excess during July and October and negative anomalies in August and September. South-east Paraguay, Misiones Province in Argentina and Paraná State in Brazil showed a near 45 mm precipitation shortfall in September, followed by a positive anomaly of similar magnitude at the beginning of October and a strong negative anomaly again at the end of October. Other areas showed mostly quite stable patterns during the first 3 months covered in this report but larger anomalies in October.
TEMP showed no anomaly on average for the whole MPZ; nevertheless, temporal and spatial variability was observed with positive and negative anomalies along the period. A clear North-South pattern is observed in temperature profiles. All regions showed a large negative anomaly and positive anomaly at the beginning and end of July respectively. Southern areas, including Santa Catarina State in Brazil and the regions further south showed negative anomalies in August and September, while Northern areas (north of and including Parana State) showed light positive anomalies in August and strong positive anomalies in September. Most of Argentina and the western third of Uruguay also displayed a marked positive anomaly at the end of September and a negative anomaly in October. Central areas (Parana, eastern Paraguay and northern Uruguay) showed positive temperature anomalies in October.
BIOMSS showed on average a 4.6 % positive anomaly. Larger positive departures were observed in most of Brazil. The largest BIOMSS deficits were in the Chaco and North of Argentine Pampas, as well as in the northern part of Brazilian agricultural area. CALF showed a reduction of 2%. Un-cropped areas were located mainly in western Argentinian Pampas and to some extent in central western and north-western Brazil. The cropping intensity of South America was 130% which is 2% above 5YA.
For the whole region VCIx was 0.65, a lower value than registered during the previous AMJJ reporting period. Low values were observed in southern and western Argentinian Pampas. Low values were also observed in Argentina Pampas and north-western Brazil. Scattered drought conditions were identified all over the MPZ. In particular, low minimum VHI values occurred in the south-western Pampas, central eastern Brazil and in Paraguay. Better conditions were found in the North of the Pampas and Mesopotamia in Argentina and South and East Brazil.
Although the fact is not clearly reflected in RAIN anomalies, some indices show poor conditions for crops in South and West Argentine Pampas.
Figure 2.3. South America MPZ: Agro-climatic indicators, July - October 2019
a. Spatial distribution of rainfall profiles
b. Profiles of rainfall departure from average (mm)
c. Spatial distribution of temperature profiles
d. Profiles of temperature departure from average (°C)
e. Potential biomass departure from 5YA
f. Cropped and uncropped arable land
g. Maximum VCI
h. VHI Minimum
g. Cropping intensity