Crop condition was generally above the five-year maximum from July to October 2019 in Iran. The harvest of summer crops (potatoes and rice) was almost over by the end of August, while winter crops (wheat and barley) started to be sown in September. Accumulated rainfall and temperature were above average (RAIN +19%, TEMP +0.4°C), while radiation was close to average. The favorable agro-climatic conditions resulted in an increase in the BIOMSS index by 8% above average. The national average of maximum VCI index was 0.97, and the Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF) was up by 28% over the recent five-year average. The cropping intensity (65% above the five-year average) indicated higher crop land utilization in 2019.
According to the national crop condition development graphs, crop condition in about 77.1% of croplands was above or close to average from July to October. Remaining croplands experienced unfavorable crop condition in about 20% of arable land, mainly in some patches of Ardabil, Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan Provinces in the North, and in the south-western Province of Khuzestan.
Overall, the outputs of summer crops is estimated to be favorable.
Based on cropping systems, climatic zones, and topographic conditions, three sub-national agro-ecological regions can be distinguished for Iran, among which two are relevant for crop cultivation. The two regions are referred to as the Semi-arid to sub-tropical hills of the west and north (104), and the Arid Red Sea coastal low hills and plains(103).
In the Semi-arid to sub-tropical hills of the west and north region, the accumulated rainfall was 72mm (18% above average), and temperature was close to average (TEMP up 0.2°C). The CALF increased by 23%. The cropping intensity CI (33%) indicates single cropping in this region. According to the NDVI profiles, the crop condition was above or close to five-year maximum in the reporting period. The national maximum VCI (VCIx) reached a high value of 0.99. The outcome of summer crops is assessed as favorable in this region.
Crop condition in the Arid Red Sea coastal low hills and plains region was above average. The region received seasonably low rainfall (11 mm). The BIOMSS was 82% higher than average due to favorable weather condition. NDVI profiles showed that NDVI did not exceed 0.2 from July to September. The CALF was 10% and the average VCIx was 0.97. The cropping intensity (38%) indicates single cropping. The agro-climatic conditions were favorable for winter crop sowing and early emergence.
Iran’s crop condition, July‐October 2019
(a) Phenology of major crops
(b) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (c) Maximum VCI
(d) Rainfall Index (e)Temperature Index
(f) Spatial NDVI patterns compared to 5YA (g) NDVI profiles
(k) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Semi‐arid to sub‐tropical hills of the west and north region (left) and Arid Red Sea coastal low hills and plains region (right))
Iran’s agro-climatic indicators by sub-national regions, current season's values and departure from 15YA, July‐October 2019
|Current (mm)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current (°C)||Departure from 15YA (°C)||Current (MJ/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)|
|Semi-arid to sub-tropical hills of the west and north||72||18||20.6||0.2||1402||-1|
|Arid Red Sea coastal low hills and plains||11||33||34.4||0.9||1453||-1|
Iran’s agronomic indicators by sub-national regions, current season's values and departure, July‐October 2019
|Region||BIOMSS||Cropped arable land fraction||Cropping Intensity||Maximum VCI|
|Current (gDM/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current||Departure from 5YA (%)||Current||Departure from 5YA (%)||Current|
|Semi-arid to sub-tropical hills of the west and north||282||-2||13||23||33||56||0.99|
|Arid Red Sea coastal low hills and plains||220||82||10||100||38||144||0.97|