The reporting period includes the harvest of the 2018-19 winter wheat (which started in July), the sowing of the 2019-20 winter wheat (which started in September) and also the harvesting of spring wheat, maize and other summer crops in September. Overall, crop condition was fair. The maximum VCI reached 0.92 and the current cropped arable land fraction was around average. Rainfall was 35% lower than average; TEMP, RADPAR and BIOMSS were higher by 0.6°C, 6% and 4%, respectively. The nationwide NDVI profile shows that crop condition was better than average in July and August, but below average from September. The temperature fluctuated around the average and rainfall was close to average in July (which covers the final stages of spring wheat and maize) but below in August, which was the last month of growing season.
In the NDVI profiles, summer crops have suffered, except in limited areas. The only place where VCIx and NDVI completely agree is around Vaslui.
More spatial detail is provided below for three main agro‐ecological zones: Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau (106), the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (104) and the Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains (105).
The CALF index of three sub-regions was close to 100% during the reporting period while the maximum VCIx varied in sub-regions, indicating that planting was satisfactory in all three regions but the growth conditions were different.
For the Western and central maize, wheat and sugar beet plateau, rainfall was lower than average by 37%, temperature and radiation were somewhat higher (TEMP +0.7℃, RADPAR +6%) and biomass increased 9%. Spatial NDVI profiles show that crop condition was higher than average before September and decreased ever since, which could be due to the decrease of rainfall (-37%). Maximum VCI of this region was 0.88, a bit low and the spatial distribution was between 0.8 and 1.0. Also the NDVI development decreased from July to October, consistent with the VCI values.
For the Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills, rainfall decreased by as much as 29% below average while temperature and radiation were both up (TEMP +0.5℃ , RADPAR +6%) and BIOMSS increased 5%. According to NDVI development, crop condition was better than average in July and lower from August. The maximum VCI map shows values above 0.8 , with the regional average at 0.94. The NDVI spatial distribution shows that NDVI was fair throughout the reporting period. As the central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills occupies only a small fraction of cropland in Romania, a small patch of irrigated land in Transylvania, this region's fair NDVI cannot represent much of Romania crop production.
For the Eastern and Southern maize, wheat and sugar beet plains, rain decreased 36%, temperature increased 0.6℃, radiation increased 1% and biomass increased 1%. The NDVI development graph shows that crop condition was higher than average during July to August and fell below average thereafter. VCI max value of this region was 0.93 and according to the distribution map, VCI values were higher than 1.0 in most of the central and middle region but below 0.8 in the south-eastern area of this sub-region (counties of Tulcea and Constanta), representing about 14.3% of national cropland.
Overall, crop condition was fair in Romania, with the exception of the extreme south-east (Dobrogea). Low rainfall impacted the final stages of summer crop and reduced production is likely in 2019.
Figure 3.38. Romania’s crop condition, July‐October 2019
(a). Phenology of major crops
(b) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI
(c) Maximum VCI
(d) Spatial NDVI patterns compared to 5YA (e) NDVI profiles
(f) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills (left) and Eastern and southern maize, wheat and sugarbeet plains (right))
(g) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Western and central maize, wheat and sugarbeet plateau)
(h) Time series rainfall pofile (i) Time series temperature pofile
Table 3.94. Romania’s agroclimatic indicators by sub‐national regions, current season's values and departure from 15YA, April ‐July 2019
|Current (mm)||Departure from 15YA(%)||Current(℃)||Departure from 15YA(℃)||Current(Mj/m²)||Departure from 15YA(%)||Current(gDM/m²)||Departure from 15YA(%)|
|Western and central maize wheat and sugarbeet plateau||158||-37||17.1||0.7||1105||6||516||9|
|Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills||223||-29||14.7||0.5||1091||6||431||5|
|Eastern and southern maize wheat and sugarbeet plains||141||-36||19||0.6||1111||5||545||1|
|Region||Cropped arable land fraction||Cropping Intensity||Maximum VCI|
|Current(%)||Departure from 5YA(%)||Current (%)||Departure from 5YA (%)||Current|
|Western and central maize wheat and sugarbeet plateau||100||0||107||-1||0.88|
|Central mixed farming and pasture Carpathian hills||100||0||103||-1||0.94|
|Eastern and southern maize wheat and sugarbeet plains||98||-1||103||-11||0.93|