Rice is the main cereal crop harvested in Afghanistan during the reporting period. Winter wheat started to be planted in October in the northern border provinces (to be harvested in May). RAIN was 194 mm (+43%), but both RADPAR and TEMP were below average (RADPAR at 746 MJ/m2, down 5%; TEMP 3.8°C, down 0.7°C). The favorable weather conditions resulted in 21% higher BIOMSS than average. In January, precipitation was higher than average and close to the 15 years maximum. The agro-climatic conditions were favorable, and the significant increase of rainfall will benefit the crop growth after the winter period.
CropWatch subdivides Afghanistan into four zones based on cropping systems, climatic zones and topography. They are described below as Dry region, Central region with sparse vegetation, Mixed dry farming and irrigated cultivation region and Mixed dry farming and grazing region.
RAIN in the Central region with sparse vegetation was 158 mm (+44%), TEMP was -1.0°C (-1.0°C), and RADPAR was average at 768 MJ/m2. BIOMSS increased by 12% and indicated the good weather condition for vegetation in this region.
The Dry region recorded 162 mm of RAIN, 83% above average, TEMP (-0.7°C ) and RADPAR（-6%）were below average. The favorable agro-climatic condition resulted in an increase of BIOMSS by 52%
In the Mixed dry farming and irrigated cultivation region, the following indicator values were observed: RAIN 245 mm, +27%; TEMP 2.5°C, -0.5°C; RADPAR 681 MJ/m2, -5%. The combination of indicators resulted in BIOMSS being close to average. CALF was 7% in this area.
Mixed dry farming and grazing region recorded 155 mm of RAIN, 54% above average. TEMP was 5.0°C , 0.6℃ lower than average, and the RADPAR was 769 MJ/m2, 3% below average.
(a). Phenology of major crops
(b) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (c) Maximum VCI
(d) Spatial NDVI patterns compared to 5YA (e) NDVI profiles
(f) Rainfall profiles (g) Temperature profiles
(h) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (central_Sparse_Veg Region (left) and Mixed_Farming_Graze Region (right))
(i) Crop condition development graph based on NDVI (Mixed Dry Irrigated Region (left) and Dry (right))
Table 3.1 Afghanistan’s agroclimatic indicators by sub-national regions, current season’s values and departure from15YA, October 2019 - January 2020
|Current (mm)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current (°C)||Departure from 15YA (°C)||Current (MJ/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)|
|Central region with sparse vegetation||158||44||-1||-1||768||-5|
|Mixed dry farming and irrigated cultivation region||245||27||2.5||-0.5||681||-5|
|Mixed dry farming and grazing region||155||54||5||-0.6||769||-3|
Table 3.2 Afghanistan’s agronomic indicators by sub-national regions, current season’s values and departure from 15YA/5YA, October 2019 - January2020
|Region||BIOMSS||Cropped arable land fraction||Maximum VCI|
|Current (gDM/m2)||Departure from 15YA (%)||Current (%)||Departure from 5YA (%)||Current|
|Central region with sparse vegetation||121||12||4||-||0.97|
|Mixed dry farming and irrigated cultivation region||127||-1||7||-||0.65|
|Mixed dry farming and grazing region||127||12||0||-||0.66|